How to teach and train laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy
Laparoscopic surgery was developed to minimize the impact of surgery and enhance patient recovery, as compared with open surgery. Although laparoscopy has become the standard for most common gastrointestinal procedures, laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy has not yet been implemented and has not been standardized. This complex procedure is associated with a long learning curve with potentially a negative impact on patient outcomes during introduction. In this narrative review we discuss the methods and materials required for teaching and practicing laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy, which include a minimum volume of 22–30 laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomies per year.